Classifications of Printed Circuit Board

Electronics | Posted by Alfred Goodwin
Aug 29 2014

The printed circuit board or most commonly known as the mother board, is the “brain” of any electronic devices in the market. Aside from making the wirings more compact, PCB’s also make an electronic device safer to use due minimized short-circuits (as compared to the ancient wire-to-wire connections). PCB’s could be classified according to the number of its layers or sides.

The simplest of all PCB’s is the single-sided printed circuit board. The board in which the electrical components and the copper tracks are fixed is called a substrate. In single-sided boards, there is only one substrate in which the electrical components are soldered to one side and the copper tracks are put into place at the other side.

The most common type of printed circuit board is the double-sided board. In this type of board, a set of both the electrical components and copper tracks are fixed on the same side of the substrate and another set of components and tracks are secured on the other side. Both sides of the substrate in a double-sided circuit board are connected with each other using the through-hole technology (also known as “thru-hole”). Through-hole technology refers to the pattern in which electric components are fixed into place by inserting lead fibers attached these components through holes drilled on the printed circuit board. These lead fibers are then soldered on the other side of the substrate either manually (using people’s hands) or automatically (using machines).

Printed circuit boardIf there are several layers of substrate used in a PCB, that PCB is called multi-layered printed circuit board. Multi-layered PCB involves many layers (more than 2) of substrate divided by a protecting material called insulation. Multi-layered PCBs are used in extremely intricate circuits most commonly found in electronic units like television and laptop computers. To date, the most number of layers of substrate used in a single printed circuit board has 42 layers. These types of boards are used in extremely complex electronic circuits.

Another way of classifying PCBs is by the materials used for the substrate.

Cheaper electronics for the budget-conscious consumers need cheaper PCBs. In order to minimize the cost, a type of PCB uses phenolic paper to make printed circuit board substrates. Phenolic substrates are very tough because they are made of phenolic polymers (components of plastic) and wood fibers. It is usually brown in color.

Another type of PCB is the epoxy. The circuit board is made of epoxy resin interwoven to fiberglass cloth. The epoxy resin is a substance that is fire resistant. Oftentimes, the name epoxy is preceded by the letters FR—meaning fire retardant. It shows the safety of flammability of the product based on standards set by governing bodies. It also normally uses bromine, a halogen, to help the epoxy board’s flame-resistant properties. Epoxy boards ensure that even though short-circuits might occur, this will not lead the electronic product to burst into flames.

For more discerning electronic products, the ultimate circuit board is described as high and ultra-high performance. With the world currently demanding to be always updated and its increasing dependency on battery-operated consumer electronics, it is of importance to use ultra-high performance circuit boards. Presently, most of the ultra-high circuit boards are based on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or more popularly known as Teflon). PTFE is very non-reactive and also diminishes friction and energy consumption of a device.

Printed circuit boards are very useful in programing devices. As technology continues to evolve, materials and layers of PCB become more and more complex. Manufacturers of electronics just need to choose which among these many types of PCB will make their products safer and more efficient to use.

Different Types of Trading Pins

Accessories | Posted by Robin Faircloth
Aug 27 2014

Many people trade off their valuable pins in exchange for a more valuable one. Sports enthusiasts are usually the ones that enjoy trading their pins. Trading pins are items that people used to collect. Mostly, you may encounter pin trading at amusement parks and during sports events.

Several companies offer various pin production designs. All pins differ in prices depending on how the material is made. By reading this article, you’ll know why certain types of trading pin are a bit more expensive than others.

Given below are the types of trading pins that you may encounter in pin trading.

  • Hard Enamel

trading pinsHard enamel trading pins are superior when it comes to quality. The pin’s outline is die-struck. The designer applies different colors using a small, soft brush. Thin metal borders separate different colors from each other. The pin will be subjected to an extreme heat. Next, it will undergo polishing to make a brilliant, even, hard enamel finish. Hard enamel pins are known for their detailed designs. They are more durable than other types of pins because they are heated. If you want to have durable and high-quality pins, then you may buy hard enamel pins.

  • Soft Enamel

The main outline of a soft enamel pin is slightly raised. The raised lines serve as boundaries for different colors. The design of the pin is hand-chiseled, making it more difficult to create a soft enamel pin. You need to indicate the number of pins you will order. Afterwards, colors will be applied on your ordered pins. All procedures are done by hands. Crafters use special needles in injecting the enamel into specified areas of the pins. To prevent colors from fading, the pins will be subjected to a high temperature, which can exceed 1600 degrees Fahrenheit. In this way, the colors will fasten to the metal more tightly. Lastly, crafters will polish the pins and deliver it to the client.

  • Photo Etched

These trading pins bear a resemblance to soft enamel pins. The only difference between the two is that photo etching procedure does not include metal stamping to produce raised edges. The colored design is generated by using a computer image generator. Afterwards, the computer-generated design will be transferred to the pin’s surface. Crafters also use epoxy coating in making these pins. If you’re looking for an intricate artwork, you can go for photo etched pins.

  • Offset Digital

Offset digital pins do not have raised edges. These pins are smooth and made of brass. The design will be printed on the surface. Afterwards, a transparent epoxy coating will be applied to seal the design.

These pins are suitable for works of art that needs precise details like paintings, logos, and photographs.

  • Silkscreen Printed

Silkscreen printed pins are very similar to offset digital pins. Rather than digital printing, the design is transferred to a metal pin through silk screening method.

What type of pin should you pick?

Offset digital pins are suitable for intricate logos, designs, and photos that include several gradients. Soft enamel pins are often used for team pin trading. On the other hand, hard enamel, photo etched, and silkscreen printed pins are preferable for all events.

What is an appropriate pin size?

90 percent of teams would choose 1.50-inch, 1.75-inch or 2.00-inch trading pins. 9% of the teams prefer to have larger pins. 1% of the teams would like smaller pins.

Pin trading is one of the popular hobbies of sports enthusiasts. It is also a nice way to support the team and to have something that can remind you of the game.

The Pros and Cons of the Two Main SARMs

Chemicals | Posted by Benny Leroy
Aug 18 2014

There are two main types of selective androgen receptor modulator or SARMs. People who buy SARMs should be aware of their differences, pros and cons in order to know what type to choose. Below are some of the pros and cons of each kind.

The first one is the Andarine, otherwise known as S-4. It was developed to be used for treating medical conditions like muscle wasting, osteoporosis and benign prostatic hypertrophy.

It is capable of not only keeping the level of lean body mass the same but also increasing it while losing fat. A decrease in the amount of lipoprotein lipase or LPL, a substance that leads to the accumulation of lipid in the body, can also be observed with the intake of Andarine. Moreover, it has better cutting properties compared to Ostarine, the other main type of SARMs, speeding up the process of fat loss. Individuals who buy SARMs to aid in a speedy loss of fat should consider taking this.

buy SARMsAlso, Andarine users do not develop pumps and swellings which are commonly experienced by people who take in other types of steroids and prohormones. These bulges do not only bring pain and discomfort to body builders and athletes but also hinder them from performing some exercises, particularly the cardio ones.

Unlike other anabolics, it does not require the use of Hawthorn berry as pre-cycle support. Also, there will be no need to use on-cycle support like milk thistle for the liver and policosanol for cholesterol.

It also has high oral bioavailability without producing immense hepatotoxic effects. Furthermore, unlike many androgenic compounds, Andarine does not cause aggressive behaviors. This is a major advantage of taking it because aggression usually results to social withdrawal, depression and low self-confidence.

On the other hand, one major side effect unique to Andarine is vision disturbance. This may include Nyctalopia or night-time blindness and yellowing of the things within the vision range. These also quickly go away when the intake of Andarine is stopped. However, it will be better to check with a health consultant before resuming the intake of this prohormone.

The second type is Ostarine. It is designed to prevent and treat muscle wasting. More studies and researches are necessary to prove its importance in the prevention of cachexia, atrophy and sarcopenia.

One major advantage of using Ostarine is the absence of androgenic activity in non-skeletal muscle tissues which is present when testosterone and other anabolic steroids are used. Therefore, intake will most likely not produce aggression.

Since Ostarine has anabolic effects almost solely on muscle tissue, it is seen as a probable treatment option for many medical conditions including age-related and cancer-related muscle wasting diseases and AIDS. Also, it can be used as a concomitant treatment with drugs that lowers bone density and as an aid for medical interventions addressing osteoporosis. It also presents a huge potential in the building and rebuilding of muscles. Having said so, this compound is used for the rehabilitation of bone-related and tendon-related injuries. This is one major factor people who buy SARMs should take into account.

It is well-known for its outstanding recomping effects. It can reduce body fat and aid gain lean muscles simultaneously. Like Andarine, it can increase lean body mass whereas other substances can only maintain it. However, unlike Andarine, it is not associated with the metabolite M1 which is a compound that can cause temporary ocular disturbances once accumulated in the body.

Ostarine is taken by mouth. Unlike other oral steroids and prohormones, it is not methylated, thus it is less hepatotoxic than them. What is more, it can be taken for more than four weeks, depending on the prescription of a registered medical doctor.

Like Andarine, the use of Hawthorne berry as pre-cycle support, milk thistle for the liver and policosanol for cholesterol as on-cycle support are unnecessary.

These are some of the advantages and disadvantages of the two main types of SARMs. People should allot enough time in considering them and in seeking the advice of medical professionals before they buy SARMs. This will prevent untoward incidents and side effects.

The Absolute Best Benefits of Using SEO Services

seo | Posted by Edwyn Gray
Aug 18 2014

As far as launching any type of website, no matter how small or how big it may be, there are a variety of different things that you will have to do in order to get some attention to it. Long gone are the days when you could just launch a page and see the world stat to hit it with traffic. Today’s internet world is far more complex than any one solution you may find today. In fact, there are a lot of different elements that you are going to find to be true when it comes to the marketing game that you will have to play. Most people don’t realize that the internet marketing portions of advertising, and more requires so much effort. Some people assume that SEO can be done through DIY efforts. That seems promising until you look at hiring SEO services.

When hiring a professional to work on getting traffic to your website, you will be given a glimpse into just how SEOcomplex things can become. You may not want to admit it at first, but it’s going to shock you just how involved some of the things are that you need to do in order to rank within search engines, gain leverage within the marketing world, and get past the competition in your niche. You’ll not only identify websites that you’ll want to emulate, but you’ll end up looking at a variety of different pieces to the overall marketing world that will showcase why it’s better to hire someone to help, than it is to do it on your own. Once you start to explore the benefits of hiring the right services, you will see some amazing benefits start to permeate within your movement forward.

Saving A Lot of Time:

The first thing that you are going to notice when you hand over the reins of your SEO work to someone else, is that your schedule will open up. The schedule that you have will not only open up, it will completely change the way that you see traffic hitting your website. This is something that most people don’t really think about until they see their page start to get so much leverage that it’s ridiculous. Imagine your page getting fully overrun with traffic, to the point where your bandwidth may go over the limit. That’s the type of benefit you may see, but not a first. In order to get a point where you have that sort of traffic generation, you will need to look into a length, time filled project. If you’re not truly convenience that this is better, consider that professional web services may place several hours per day dedicated to your website, and you will only be able to put in a few hours. There’s a huge difference between what you can do and what others will do for you. Just take a look at the results that you get after hiring a professional and compare that to the influence that you were getting by doing it all on your own. You will find that there is a huge difference between the options that you have as a result of your own understanding and the results that you receive from the hands of someone else. At the end of the day, ask yourself if you truly have enough time to invest in this type of protocol.

Saving A Lot of Money:

You may not think that you will save money when you hire SEO services, but it will come through over the course of your investment. You may have to pay up front, but you will find that it saves money in the realms of advertising. Instead of having to put more and more money into the pockets of search engines, you can ensure that your money goes a lot further to influence your traffic. There’s nothing wrong with PPC campaigns, as they are good to gain traffic with, however, you will find that it can cost you an arm and a leg to implement properly. Saving a lot of money through this, is hard. It’s nearly impossible to stay on top of the marketing world when you have other companies that are going to outspend you at every corner. However, when you’re working within the boundaries of just marketing with SEO, you won’t have to spend as much and you’ll end up with a positive result overall. This is something that will definitely help you move forward, guaranteed.

Peace of Mind:

Perhaps the hardest thing to quantify across all major industries is that of peace of mind. You will find it when you know that your website is getting traffic, you are seeing sales rise, and you are able to gain a leg up on your competition. It’s something that is gratifying, and something that will allow you to work on other projects within your business, instead of worrying about advertising, marketing, and optimization overall. It can only help you, and give you further ideas of how important it is to have a marketing team working for you, instead of trying to compete against t hem. Test this out and see how far your website can go.

The Concept of VPS Hosting

Web Hosting | Posted by Cameron Perkins
Aug 08 2014

A virtual private server (VPS) functions as the link between a dedicated server and shared hosting. It is a virtual server installed on a computer that is working on several operating systems. Technically, a website that is operating on a VPS hosting has its own OS, disc space, bandwidth, and is allowed to be fully independent from the other websites in the server. Today, there are Cheap VPS hosting services that are available on the web for businesses who are just establishing their website.

VPS hosting utilizes the physical server that is found in a data center. In order to create its own virtual server, the physical server is partitioned into several spaces. These spaces perform as a part of one physical server although it can act as a dedicated server as well. This characteristic found in a VPS hosting is considered as a good temporary solution for websites that require a dedicated server in the future. Each VPS can’t see the data on another VPS because each has its own file system.

VPSVirtual Private Server is a mixture of shared hosting and dedicated hosting, although it has more advantages than the two. A cheap VPS hosting is easier to acquire compared to a dedicated server and it provides greater strategic benefits for both small and large businesses. Those who facilitate the virtual environment of a VPS hosting are allowed to reboot their server and use it like a single dedicated server.

How Does It Work?

VPS hosting operates on a process called partitioning. Even if the account holder sees the virtual environment of a VPS hosting, there are still spaces that provide more resources for the end user. A lot of computer analysts compare VPS hosting to owning an apartment. Having a VPS hosting is like owning an apartment building where you can customize each suite without affecting the other spaces in the area. In VPS hosting, you can install a software on one website without causing changes to the other websites.

This makes VPS hosting better than a shared hosting server. In shared hosting, changes done to one website might affect the entire server causing it to disrupt and go down. Websites that have higher traffic in a shared hosting server might take over the entire server’s resources. This scenario is unlikely to happen even in a cheap VPS hosting server.

When to Use VPS Hosting

For end users who have websites that have expanded in their shared hosting services but are not yet ready for a dedicated server, cheap VPS hosting is a great interim solution for you. A VPS hosting server is also preferred by hosting customers because it’s easier to control and to facilitate than the shared hosting servers.

Hosting customers also transfer from shared hosting to VPS hosting when the websites have sensitive data or security issues that need to be addressed. Businesses which are expanding also make the move from shared hosting to VPS hosting when the data in a shared hosting server outgrow the hosting services. VPS hosting is good when the business demands the user to do more email-sending and when the user feels the need for complete hosting control. This web server also prevents websites from eating up majority of the CPU and RAM resources that’s why this is preferred by most hosting customers.

Considerable pricing options and packages are available now on the internet for people who want to try VPS hosting. A good and cheap VPS hosting package is ideal for starters who are still honing their technical know-how. They can try a VPS hosting server and practice their computer skills without shelling out a huge amount for it.

Mobile Eye Doctor: What You Need to Know

Eye Doctor | Posted by Marshall Sykes
Jul 12 2014

Taking care of one’s eyes should always be a top medical priority. But the truth is, this is not the case with a lot of people. Some tend to take their eye health for granted, until trouble starts creeping in. But for others, geography is the main hindrance to seeing an eye specialist. In these cases, this is where the value of the mobile eye doctor comes in.

The mobile eye doctor

Through this approach in providing healthcare, eye specialists can service residents of remote areas, nursing homes, and those in assisted living facilities. They are like doctors on wheels. They will be the ones to go to their patients to extend expert medical assistance.

Through this innovation, geography will no longer be a hindrance to receiving proper eye care from specialists. The fact is, remoteness or problems in transportation are among the common reasons why patients rarely have their eyes checked. But with eye doctors now traveling to patients, this will no longer be an excuse.

The mobile eye clinic

d-8The mobile eye clinic brings a group of eye specialists to the nursing homes, remote locations, and assisted living facilities to render medical service to residents. These specialists include but are not limited to optometrists and technicians who have years in service and experience. Hence, patients can be assured that they are in the best hands.

The fact is, there are a number of private and public mobile eye clinics nowadays. This is partly due to the demand for them. If in case you are seeking the service of a private mobile eye doctor, then it is best if you read some reviews first to see the most reputable and highly recommended ones.

Services rendered

Among the things offered by a Mobile eye doctor are comprehensive eye health as well as eye care service. That means you can have an eye exam, diagnosis, or checkup even during an on-site visit. This is made possible through the equipment readily available in the mobile clinic. It is really like going to a clinic. But the difference here is that the clinic is already the one that goes to you.

Some mobile eye clinics also take pride in their state of the art equipment that allows them to treat patients even in their beds, or perform minor treatments.

Early diagnosis

There is no doubt that there are a lot of benefits provided by this innovation. One of which is early diagnosis.

Early diagnosis is important for immediate and proper treatment of any medical condition, including eye diseases. But as mentioned earlier, a lot of people tend to take their eye check up for granted. Or in some instances, geography and time become a hindrance to push through with their appointments with an eye specialist.

With the mobile eye doctor, the problem with time and location is immediately addressed. Since the doctors will be the ones to come to the place of residence of the patients, the latter can already have their eyes checked to see if they have any eye problems that they are not aware of. And if there is, proper treatment can be given immediately. This can prevent worsening of the situation which may eventually lead to more complicated eye diseases and even loss of vision or blindness.

At the same time, regular checkups through the mobile doctor will help keep the patients’ eyes in check. This is especially important for the elderly. An important thing to remember here is that as people age, their eyes become more prone to eye diseases. Thus, it is essential to have regular appointments with an eye specialist.

Easy Tricks to Have E Liquids at Their Best

Health | Posted by Calvin Boykin
Jun 27 2014

When it comes to having a taste of only the best e liquids, nothings beats obtaining them from the most reputable of manufacturers in today’s market (or so it may seem to most starting vapers). As anyone would easily expect, the most satisfying e juices only come from topnotch companies. But isn’t it great to know that their flavors could further be enhanced for users to experience the juices at their maximum potential? While some may already think a perfect mixture is already available for their specific taste, a few tricks could make their use of the electronic cigarette much more interesting.

While some may be skeptical with the method, steeping actually helps improve the taste of many e liquids. This is especially recommended for E-juiceliquids that has a mix of two or more flavors. The idea in this process is to make the flavors become infused with each other. Some prefer leaving their bottle of juice open, while others put the cap on. For experienced vapers, having the juice steep for an entire month creates a big difference than just steeping it for a few days.

Having that burnt taste in the e juice proves to be depressing for many vapers. In certain cases, this is due to the poor quality of the juice itself or the starter kit being cheaply made. In other cases, this could be due to how the device was manufactured, where certain metallic or greasy residues have been left. In this particular situation, puffing without inhaling should be done. After a few puffs, this aftertaste should go away.

Gunk accumulation may also cause this burnt aftertaste from e liquids. This could easily be prevented by regularly cleaning the vaping gear. It may also be produced when there is not enough liquid in the cartomizer. The user may want to fill the device with more of the liquid, just to prevent drying up this part of the gear.

If used continuously disregarding this slight burnt taste, the cartomizer could eventually be damaged to the extent that it’s not useable anymore. To avoid necessitating cartridge replacement, it’s best to check the gear every now and then, especially when the juices used have more of vegetable glycerin, which tends to create gunk faster than liquids with more propylene glycol.

Some prefer liquids with less vapor clouds while having a stronger throat hit or vice versa. Others, on the other hand, prefer balance of both worlds. In essence, the base ingredients (propylene glycol (PG) and/or vegetable glycerin or (VG)) decide how much vapor clouds are created and how potent the throat hit would become. More vegetable glycerin produces bigger clouds of vapor, while more propylene glycol means stronger throat hit.

In cases where the users feel there is not enough of both throat hit and cloudy vapor in their e liquids, a good idea is to create their own formulation with less PG and more VG. The resulting juice would naturally produce cloudier vapor and weaker throat hit. To supplement for this lack of throat hit, it’s good to increase the level of nicotine. Individuals who want to have a healthier mix may want to simply add pure grain alcohol, or even try menthol- or cinnamon-infused flavors, which help add up to that burning sensation in the throat.

It’s best to keep in mind that satisfaction from e liquids is not always dependent on the quality of the product. Certain people have their own standards for good quality juices, and being keen with details such as the mixture of the solution and how it’s best used is the key to making the liquids taste a lot better.

Elements of Criminal Law

Law | Posted by Bradley Roger
May 09 2014

There are four elements of criminal law. These are the actus Reus, mens rea, concurrence and causation. These four are very important for the criminal defense attorney Salt Lake City to know to defend the accused properly. All these elements must be present before a man can be declared as guilty. If all these are present, then the accused is guilty beyond reasonable doubt. Reasonable doubt is the standard evidence required for a man to be proven guilty.

According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, “Everyone charged with penal offence has the right be presumed innocent until proven guilty.” This indicates that a criminal defense attorney Salt Lake City must be able to gather all the evidences to cover the four elements in order to win the case.

Actus Reus

criminal defense attorneyThis is a Latin phrase which means “guilty act.” It may also be referred to as conduct. This means that an illegal act must have been committed by the person charged with criminal offense. This was made out of the problems that standards of proof generated. There may be idle thoughts that an individual can make which may somehow seem like a criminal thought. No one can differentiate the two except for the person himself. A person will not be sentenced if his thoughts did not cause harm to another person, and provided that those thoughts remained as thoughts only. Accusations or thoughts cannot determine whether a man performed a criminal act as no one can perceive the truth by just merely listening. No one can read other people’s minds to know if they speak of the truth. The criminal act must have been witnessed. A criminal defense attorney Salt Lake City must watch out for this element carefully.

Mens Rea

This is another Latin phrase which means “mental state.” This is commonly known as the intent of a person to commit a crime. This may also be called as the “guilty mind.” This means that the person charged with a penal offence must have done the criminal act purposely. The person must have committed the crime in his own will. The mental state of the person during the act must be determined. There is an underlying concept which says that an act is not guilty unless the mind is guilty. Mens rea is sometimes thought of as motive. But, motive is different from mens rea and cannot be the sole basis for the determination of guilt. The question is whether the one charged of the crime really intended to cause harm to another person.


This is simply the presence of the first two elements, means rea and actus Reus. They must be present at the same time when the act was committed. An accused cannot be found guilty unless the mind is guilty. The mind is not guilty unless a criminal act was actually committed. These are the underlying principles for this element of criminal law. A criminal defense attorney Salt Lake City defending an accused person must prove that these two elements were not present during the time the crime was supposedly committed. The lawyer must be able to show evidence that these two were not present even if the accused is really guilty. When the lawyer is able to do this, they will win the case.


Causation refers to the actual harm made. There are some criminal offenses that require causation. For example, homicide or murder requires unlawful killing or death of a person. Battery requires actual body injuries as a result of the attacks made. This serves as proof that the crime has been committed. Without this, the person who committed the act will not face the punishment. The act may have been present but not enough to be put to punishment.

The Different Kinds of Golf Equipment

Accessories | Posted by Dale Ferguson
Apr 16 2014

The term golf equipment is an umbrella term for a wide variety of things that are used in the sport of golf. There are so many different pieces of golfing equipment that it can be difficult for some people, especially beginners, to keep track of them all.

golf equipmentThose who want to start playing golf really need to learn some of the basics. Understanding the pieces of golfing equipment will be a really good start. People ought to learn the tools that they are going to use before playing with them. It may seem intimidating to learn about the pieces of equipment used in gold given that there are so many that a person ought to acquaint themselves with. Thankfully, learning some of the basics does not have to be that difficult.

Golfing equipment can be summarized neatly in the golf ball that golfers strike, instruments that golfers use to help them in carrying out their stroke, and other pieces of equipment that someone augment the playing experience. Of course, there’s more to it than that. Below is a brief rundown of some of the more important pieces of golf equipment that people need to get themselves acquainted with.
The golf ball

This is the piece of golfing equipment most people, even those who do not play the sport, are familiar with. A lot of sports use a ball in playing the game and golf is one of them. Most people are familiar with the golf ball as a round white object that is big enough to fit the palm that’s covered with tiny little regressions all over the surface.

Golf balls weren’t always made this way. First, gold balls were used to be made out of hardwood like beech. Later on, new golf balls came into being in the form of leather skin balls fit to burst with down feathers. These leather balls were referred to as “featheries.” Then the “gutties” which possessed a flight pattern similar to its predecessor. Thereafter, the meshies were introduced; these are the balls that closely resemble the ones that people are most familiar with.

The golf balls of today were initially made in 1910, but only became popular in the 1940’s after the patent on this golf equipment design had expired. The recessed dimples that cover the ball were introduced in order to improve its aerodynamics. It is also meant to keep the ball spinning in order to create lift and help increase distance.

Golf balls today are much regulated. The size and mass are all taken into account and failure to meet certain standards will render a particular golf ball unusable. The most important thing to take into account when getting a golf ball, other than its design, is the material it is made from as it will have a huge influence on the spin, distance and trajectory of the ball once struck.
Golf clubs

Players use clubs to strike the golf ball. This is perhaps the second most iconic piece of equipment that most people associate the sport of golf with. Players carry several types of clubs with them. This number of clubs never exceeds the regulated number of 14.

The three major club types that people need to familiarize themselves with and they are woods, putters, and irons.

Woods are used when making shots from long distances such as the tee or fairway, and in some instances the rough. Putters are different from other clubs in that they produce little to no loft. This forces the ball to stay on the ground and roll once it is struck. It is the club people see when the golfer is about to strike the ball into the hole from a distance of a few feet. Irons are the more precise clubs used by golfers. They are typically employed from fairways or the rough. Some of the latest golf equipment is known as hybrids which combine some of the characteristics of wood and iron.

Author Bio:

Rock Bottom Golf has evolved into one of the top discount golf clubs in the world. Our core philosophy is to provide golfers with incredible deals on top quality golf shirts, golf shoes, golf apparels and golf equipment How do we do it? We buy huge lots of closeout merchandise, keep our overhead as low as humanly possible, leverage technology and then pass the savings to the consumer.

How to Live Chat with Your Friends

Technology | Posted by Walter Quinn
Dec 18 2013

If you are usually unavailable whenever your friends want to talk to you, it is best that you use a live chat program to talk with them. With this type of program, it will allow you to see them and talk to them without any expensive fees and with the comfort of your own home. Well, some live chat services might charge you, but it is very common that many of them do not.

live chatHowever, it is important that you ask your friends first about the programs they use or prefer before you start downloading, or installing a chat program. Remember that if you use a different application, you will not be able to establish a connection or a live chat session with them. So take note the chat program or service that they are using to make sure that you will be able to talk. By the way, a few of the most common and popular live chat applications or services around the Internet are Yahoo! Messenger, AOL Instant Messenger, Google Talk, Facebook, and Skype.

Once you determine the service that they are using, then it is time to download and install that program. It is very common that those programs can be installed or downloaded from their respective websites. And after setting up the program on your computer, the next step is to create a live chat account.

When you get your account ready, then you will need to test if your account or program is working. To do that, all you need to do is run the program and try to log in using your credentials (username and password). In case the program did not work, you might need to reinstall it, and in case that your credentials are not working, then you might need to go back to the live chat service website and see if there were any problems during your account registration.

When your account starts working and program starts running, then it is time for you to add your friends. You might want to call them or text them for you to know their usernames. On the other hand, you can just send them your username instead, and let them add you. On a different note, some instant messaging program or chat program may accept or may allow you to search your friends by using their real names. This is possible if their accounts are linked to their real names.

In case that they accepted your friend requests, then you can start chatting with them. Typically, you have the option to talk to them using instant messaging, voice calling, and video chatting. By the way, as a reminder, if you want to have a great time chatting, it is best that you make sure that your Internet connection is high-speed one.

Multiple chat agents can monitor and process live chat for your company.